Archive for the ‘Romans 9’ Category

Personal Response

Personally, I believe that the timeless truths of this passage are absolutely sweet. Indeed, the whole paradigm of my thinking was turned upside down for the better when I came across a true understanding of this chapter in the book of Romans. I used to believe that God had chosen me only because I first chose Him, but I realized now how arrogant it was to think this way. For it is exactly that sort of thinking that implies God chooses according to the merits of a positive response towards the Gospel. This would not be salvation by grace but of works! Only through this passage that the truths of the doctrines of grace really made sense to me, making the Christian belief so different from any other religion which states that we must do something to attain salvation.

I rest in knowing that my God never fails, and that everything that happens only happens because it is in His secret decree. It follows from this that whatever happens must be what is best, for it corresponds to His will. I also rest in knowing that, being chosen by God, His grace will sustain me through every difficulty, trial and affliction. Often times my conscience condemns me in times of great trouble, and the truth of this passage would comfort me, reminding me that I have been justified by the will of God, and nothing can separate the love of God from His elect. The truths of this passage has also caused me to be more patient when speaking to non-believers, knowing that I could just be like them if it were not for the grace of God that found me. It is also the truths of this passage that convicts me anytime I feel pride lurking in. All in all, I am compelled to a much deeper sense of gratitude towards the God who saved me, seeing that there was absolutely nothing in me that could have influenced God to choose me over another. I live, breath and work only by the grace of God. Knowing the grace of my God, I cannot NOT be caused to fall in love with Him


Timeless Truths and Application

An understanding of this passage is still immensely significant for us today. It is relevant because through this passage we come to understand that the God we serve never fails, even when it seems that many are rejecting His name. A correct understanding of this passage should encourage believers as they rest in the absolute security of the will of God. If God had already chosen you from before the foundation of world then you could never lose your salvation for God never changes His mind. This is the epitome of what it means to be saved by grace. Christians do not need to live in constant worry about whether or not they might lose their salvation, for it is God who determines their justification and salvation. As this rests upon the mercy and electing grace of God, it follows that His promises are irrevocable. Furthermore, believers can feel secure even when sin and evil lies rampant on the world today, knowing that their very existence is dependent upon God’s preservation, thus ultimately fulfilling His sovereign plan. Sometimes the fewness of believers might shock us. Indeed, just a stroll down the streets of downtown Los Angeles today will reaffirm this. Instead of getting discouraged by such things, the message of this passage should comfort us, exhorting us to live in contentment and security.

In terms of evangelism, believers should be even more encouraged to do so in light of this passage. For this passage supplies believers with the confidence that it will be God who will effectively bring about the results. Evangelists, therefore, are not responsible for the salvation of others, but should be trusting in God’s sovereignty in bringing about salvation through them. Hence evangelists should not be discouraged when their labor seemingly does not produce fruit, for it will be God who decides which seeds He would cause to grow.

This passage also contains one of the most humbling messages in all of Scripture. It reveals that nothing in you caused God to choose you over the atheist next door; that even your decision to choose Christ was foreordained by the grace of God. There is therefore no difference between believers and non-believers but the sovereign choice of God alone. It follows from this that we cannot boast in anything, but only by the power of God; neither can we boast when God uses us to bring about salvation in others. There is then no place for pride in the Christian walk. It reminds us of our position as creatures and God as righteous Creator and that He has the absolute right to do what He wants to do with His creation.

19You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?… Paul anticipates yet another objection. Here the sinful mind is so quick to question the authority and justice of God. The question, plainly stated is “How can God hold unbelievers responsible for their sin if it is God who had already predestined them to destruction?” The objection is charging God with tyranny, and thus argues that God would not be just in condemning men, neither would he be just in putting the blame on man as no one can thwart His will.

20But who are you, O man, to answer back to God?… Paul’s reply is a sobering reminder of who we are before a Holy God. We are to know our place, who is man, and how arrogant is it for man to think he can contest with God? As sinners before God we deserve nothing but condemnation, and are therefore not entitled to anything. Paul’s response places the ontology of God as the only and highest reason, content and knowing that such a reason would suffice. Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?” Paul further emphasizes that our very life is dependent upon His will and this should greatly humble us. As He had made us, He has full authority and power over our lives and we have no right in challenging our Creator.

21Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use? … Here Paul lays out the reason to which the formed has no right to content to its former – that is that the former has complete right to do what He wants with what He had formed. An owner has the right to do what he wants with the things that he owns, so is God with His creation. We have no claim on His grace and nothing is ours except for what He had given us, and neither are we entitled to any of His merits. Therefore God has the right to make one individual for honorable use and another for dishonorable use.

22What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power,… Though Paul does not give an explicit reason to why one was chosen over the other, except that the reason was not any goodness or initiative of the elect, Paul reasons that God would have the perfect right to prepare some for destruction. This would be fully just for God to do, as it would show His righteous wrath on undeserving sinners, thus making known His power among the rest of creation. Has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction… Some of the reprobates, God deals with patiently, suspending judgment upon them for a time being to make known the severity of His wrath and power. These reprobates, though seemingly rampant in disobedience to God for a time being are ultimately under His very will and are dependent upon His sustaining power, and will be thrown into utter destruction at a time that seems most pleasing to God.

23in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy,… The vessels of destruction which reveal the wrath of God amplifies the glory of God as He chooses to be merciful to His elect. For the mercy of God will shine far more radiantly in the midst of His wrath, as His elect sees the wrath of God befalling upon the reprobates. Which he has prepared beforehand for glory— … God, just as He had prepared some for destruction beforehand, has prepared some for glory beforehand. Thus this coheres with the rest of Paul’s argument that the mercy of God rests solely on His will and had already been determined before the foundation of the world.

14What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part?… Here Paul foresees and anticipates what he knows will be an objection for surely Paul had received this objection before. Here the fallen man is prone to say that God is unjust in choosing one over the other. How can this be fair? And Paul emphatically answers: By no means!… There is indeed no injustice in God’s part. No one receives less than what they deserve. The elect receives mercy, which is more than they deserve, while the reprobates receive justice, which is exactly what they deserve. Paul continues to defend the justice of God in verse fifteen.

15For he says to Moses , “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”… This is the basis in which God elects His people, as Paul quotes Exodus 33:19. The context of this quotation was God’s response to Moses when Moses prayed for the salvation of the whole people. As if God said that it will depend entirely upon His good pleasure regarding who will receive His mercy and whom His wrath. God has the complete freedom to do what He wills. The basis of His righteousness in electing some and passing over others is that he can do what He pleases – that His authority alone is sufficient. This means that God is never externally influenced to make a decision. For to say that there was something external to God that incited him to bestow mercy upon one and not the other would be making mercy much less mercy, and God much less of a God.

16So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy….Paul concludes his previous thought with this summary – that salvation depends not on human will or any sort of merit in man, but solely on God’s mercy. This is the very essence of grace, and no one has a claim to the mercies of God. This passage further reinstates salvation by grace alone, with nothing in the human will that can illicit the grace of God. Some theologians express the view that the grace of God co-operates with the will of man to bring about salvation and perseverance, but it seems to me that Paul’s argument thus far does not leave any place for the will of man as playing a part in salvation.

17For the Scripture says to Pharaoh,”… This refers to the Pharoah of Exodus. For this very purpose I have raised you up,…the Hebrew uses the causative conjugation of a verb here, literally meaning “I made you stand”. Paul here is arguing that God was perfectly sovereign even through Pharoah’s disobedience; that it was God who preserved Pharoah. That I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” Pharoah then, as mighty as he might have been, and as persistent as he was in being disobedient to God was preserved by the will of God to show forth His power. This is used by Paul in support of God’s sovereignty in using the reprobate for His glory, and God was fully righteous in predestining Pharoah to destruction. It follows from this that it would be meaningless and futile to content against the will of God, that even the disobedience of the reprobate is used by God in the secret decree of His providence.

18So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills… Paul sums up his argument thus far, coming back to the fact that God has mercy on whomever it pleases Him, and hardens whomever He wills. This statement implies that all men deserve wrath and are not entitled to God’s mercy. The word “hardens” here does not mean mere permission, but also the operation of the wrath of God.

8This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring… Paul argues that it is the spiritual offspring of Abraham that is the true Israel; those who believe, by faith, in the promises of God. Hence, if Isaac was the seed, Ishmael was not, and Jacob was the seed while Esau was passed over, it follows that not all of Abraham’s natural descendents are of the True Israel. Paul is also making a comparison to chapter 4:11-18, where Paul states that Abraham is the father of all who believes by faith. This inheritance is not given through the flesh or from the law, but a spiritual inheritance received by having faith on the promises of God.

9For this is what the promise said:”About this time next year I will return, and Sarah shall have a son.”…This quotation comes from Genesis 18:12, the context is God promising that the seed will come forth from Sarah’s womb, foretelling the birth of Isaac. At about this time Ishmael was already born, again further proving that not all of the fleshly seeds of Abraham are of the true seeds of Abraham. It is worth mentioning that Paul seeks to prove that God’s election is not based on the physical seed of Abraham all the way from the Old Testament, reassuring his Jewish readers that he is not teaching something new but that God had always been consistently doing this from the very beginning. This is why Paul exegetes and argues from the Old Testament.

10And not only so, but also when Rebekah had conceived children by one man, our forefather Isaac,… Here Paul turns to the even more poignant example of Jacob and Esau, as if anticipating in the former comparison of Ishmael and Isaac that some might object saying one was conceived by a slave and was done out of true faith. In this case, Jacob and Esau were both of equal standing on a physical level; both coming from the same mother, and were even twins. It is made clear that the fulfillment of the promise is not under the fleshly seed but in the Spiritual.

11though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad—… This coheres with what Paul teaches in the first chapter of Ephesians; that God had predestined his elect from before the foundation of the world. Here also Paul begins to exposit the basis in which the elect are called, and excludes the possibility that it might be in God’s foreknowledge of an individual’s positive response to His calling. The view of God electing those whom he foresaw would positively respond to His call is normally inferred from Romans 8:29. However the word foreknew in this verse had been used before as always the opposite of rejection, therefore it does not signify a mere foreknowledge of a certain individual, but is more of an emphasis of God’s special choice or covenant affection for that individual (consider Gen 18:19, Jer 1:5, Amos 3:2). in order that God’s purpose of election might continue,…Instead the basis of Jacob’s election over Esau rests solely upon the purposes of God, His sovereign will and good pleasure. Not because of works but because of him who calls—…This would cohere with what Paul had just stated, that God’s election is not based upon any sort of works or even foreknowledge of good works. It follows from this that there is nothing in man that could have incited God to elect Him, and the basis of their election rests solely on the mercy of God.

12she was told, “The older will serve the younger.” … This was from the birth account of Rebekah in Genesis 25:23. The Tyndale commentary interprets this prophecy as being related not to the individuals of Esau and Jacob but to their descendents for Esau had never rendered service to Jacob. (182) This interpretation seems plausible, but I would also add that this emphasizes how God’s will is to be done and how it is sovereign over human traditions, and is what He wills will be done.

13As it is written,  ”Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.” Paul confirms, from Malachi 1:2-3 an even stronger testimony of God’s divine will. Jacob received the blessings of the Lord through the kindness of God and not of His own merit at all. By nature, and to our human intuitions, the younger should have served the older, but it was God’s good pleasure to have mercy on Jacob while passing over his older brother Esau.

5To them belong the patriarchs, … It was from Israel that the primary recipients of God’s promises flow. This would include Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and his twelve sons. And from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ… Paul reaffirms that Christ too had come forth as a descendent of Abraham and David, alluding to Romans 15: 8 where he explicitly teaches that Christ came to show God’s faithfulness in fulfilling His promises to the patriarchs. Who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen….Paul reminds his readers of the divinity of Christ, mentioning that Christ glories and is God over all, not just of ethnic Israel.

6But it is not as though the word of God has failed…Here Paul turns to the basic issue that had already been mention in the beginning of this paper. No doubt that God’s faithfulness in keeping His promises to the Patriarchs is being called into question and Paul seeks to defend the righteousness and the Sovereignty of God in keeping with His word in the following section. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel,…Paul explains that God had never promised the certainty of the salvation of all ethnic Israel, but there are some descendents from ethnic Israel that are not a part of the true Israel. It follows from this then that the existence of a multitude of unbelievers in ethnic Israel does not mean the promises of God had been thwarted, neither has the word of God failed.

7and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring…By mentioning Abraham, Paul argues that the true Israel are those who receive justification by faith alone, which he had already argued in Romans chapter four. but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.”… This is a quotation from Genesis 21:12. The context of this quotation is God telling Abraham to allow Sarah to throw out Hagar and Ishmael, confirming that not all of the flesh offspring of Abraham are of the true Israel.

8This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring… Paul argues that it is the spiritual offspring of Abraham that is the true Israel; those who believe, by faith, in the promises of God. Hence, if Isaac was the seed, Ishmael was not, and Jacob was the seed while Esau was passed over, it follows that not all of Abraham’s natural descendents are of the True Israel. Paul is also making a comparison to chapter 4:11-18, where Paul states that Abraham is the father of all who believes by faith. This inheritance is not given through the flesh or from the law, but a spiritual inheritance received by having faith on the promises of God.

1 I am speaking the truth in Christ—… Paul realizes that he is about to address an important topic. An issue that is indeed worthy of an oath as many at that time were calling Paul an enemy of to his own kinsmen. Many thought that Paul was telling his nation to forsake the law of Moses, betraying his very ethnicity. He then prepares the minds of his reader, anticipating that many of which would be Jewish Christians, that he is speaking the truth, even making an oath by the name of Christ. I am not lying;… Hence he reaffirms that he is speaking truth, and that he takes the subject matter very seriously. My conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit— … To add even more reassurance upon his readers, he brings in the testimony and the witnessing of the Holy Spirit towards His conscience. Paul assures readers that he is free from evil motives, or any sort of desire to lead others astray and what he is about to speak is under the guidance and direction of the Holy Spirit.

2 that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. … Paul expresses his sorrow and sadness over his Jewish family, signifying that he cares very much for his kinsmen. This passage shows that Paul, even when knowing that what is happening to the Jews is of the will and providence of God, is still struggling and is in anguish with this very issue in his heart.

3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ… Another expression of Paul’s care and love for his Jewish family. So much so that the Greek word anathema is used here, which means not only a temporal death but an eternal separation from Christ. Paul was wishing that it was possible for him to be condemned if it would mean that salvation would come to his kinsmen. for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh… Such was the love of Paul for his people and his sorrow is further expressed in witnessing that many from his own nation are missing from the sovereign election of God.

4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption,… Paul here begins to acknowledge the many blessings that the Israelites had received from God, signifying how Israel had been set apart from the other nations. First, the glory,…signifying God’s dwelling among them, setting them apart from other nations. Secondly, the covenants,…there had been some dispute on whether this should be given a singular reading (in which case, it might be referring to the covenant of Sinai in Ex 24.8), however it seems most probable to me that Paul meant this to be understood by a plural reading, which would include the many covenants that God established with the Patriarchs of Israel and the New Covenant as expressed in Jer 31:31. The giving of the law,…referring to the Mosaic law and legislation which was exclusively handed down to Israel, again setting the nation apart. The worship, … this refers to the ways that God wanted to be worshipped as revealed to Israelites, mainly in the book of Leviticus. And the promises… referring to the Messianic promises, including the ones God established to Abraham and David.

Romans 9, Pt. 2

Posted: June 22, 2010 by graysutanto in Romans 9
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Big Idea and Interpretation

Romans 9:1-23 fits into the argument addressing this question: how is God’s promise still being fulfilled to ethnic Israel with so many Israelites rejecting the Christ? This calls God’s faithfulness into question. Has the Word of God failed? The Roman Church was first started by Jewish Christians, and is now being outnumbered by Gentiles, there was no doubt that such questions were being raised. The Jewish Christians had a worldview that believed their race was and always would be the chosen people of God, and that God held them in favor over other races. How then can the lack of Jewish believers be reconciled with God’s declared purpose with ethnic Israel? This calls for a theodicy, and Paul seeks to show the righteousness of God and His divine purpose through election, clarifying who truly are the elect. God had never promised the sure salvation of all of ethnic Israel, instead not all of Israel is part of the true Israel – the elect people of God. The big idea of this passage is: God’s promise to Israel is irrevocable since they depend upon His mercy and His electing grace.

Romans 9, Pt. 1

Posted: June 21, 2010 by graysutanto in Romans 9
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Here is the first of many parts of an exposition of Romans 9:1-23

Genre and Context

The Genre of the Book of Romans is Epistolic, which means that it is a letter. Epistles are very flexible in their content, usually following a structure that consists of an opening, a body and a closing, and they were meant to be read in a single sitting. These are not narratives like the Gospels, instead, they are generally written with an aim of addressing a certain need or issue that the recipients of the epistle are currently dealing with. A common theme that the epistles share is a reflection upon the significance of Jesus Christ, and what He had done on the cross, how this affects God’s promises on Israel and the life of the new believers. The Epistles are not philosophical or theological treatises that try to expound and explain every issue exhaustively. Instead, they seek to address specific situations facing churches. A key thing to keep in mind while interpreting the Epistles is to try to understand the specific circumstances that the original recipients were facing. Living a long time after these issues were current, means that we could be disadvantaged if we only hear the answer without comprehending the question. Often, we can infer from the text itself a basic idea of the issues that the writer is trying to address. An understanding of the context is therefore crucial.

The book of Romans contains the fullest expression of Paul’s theology, but knowing that it is an Epistle, he still never meant it to be a full or exhaustive theological treatise, leaving out eschatology, major doctrines of the church and Christology. From the text itself, we can deduce that Paul was addressing issues that interested both Jews and Gentiles. The ESV study bible outlines some:

1 Can one be right with God through obeying the Law? (Rom 1:1-3:20)

2 What can be learned from Abraham, and is he the father of both Jewish and Gentile Christians (Rom 4:1-25)?

3 What role does the law play with reference to sin? (Rom 5:29; 7:1-25)

4 What does the salvation of Gentiles indicate about the future of Israel as God’s people? (Rom 9:1-11:36) and

5 Should Christians observe Old Testament food laws, and how should they relate to fellow believers on such matters? (Rom 13:1-15:13) (ESV, 2152) The focus on Jew-Gentile issues implies some sort of tension between them in the Church of Rome, and Paul is seeking to reconcile the Roman Christian body.