14What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part?… Here Paul foresees and anticipates what he knows will be an objection for surely Paul had received this objection before. Here the fallen man is prone to say that God is unjust in choosing one over the other. How can this be fair? And Paul emphatically answers: By no means!… There is indeed no injustice in God’s part. No one receives less than what they deserve. The elect receives mercy, which is more than they deserve, while the reprobates receive justice, which is exactly what they deserve. Paul continues to defend the justice of God in verse fifteen.
15For he says to Moses , “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”… This is the basis in which God elects His people, as Paul quotes Exodus 33:19. The context of this quotation was God’s response to Moses when Moses prayed for the salvation of the whole people. As if God said that it will depend entirely upon His good pleasure regarding who will receive His mercy and whom His wrath. God has the complete freedom to do what He wills. The basis of His righteousness in electing some and passing over others is that he can do what He pleases – that His authority alone is sufficient. This means that God is never externally influenced to make a decision. For to say that there was something external to God that incited him to bestow mercy upon one and not the other would be making mercy much less mercy, and God much less of a God.
16So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy….Paul concludes his previous thought with this summary – that salvation depends not on human will or any sort of merit in man, but solely on God’s mercy. This is the very essence of grace, and no one has a claim to the mercies of God. This passage further reinstates salvation by grace alone, with nothing in the human will that can illicit the grace of God. Some theologians express the view that the grace of God co-operates with the will of man to bring about salvation and perseverance, but it seems to me that Paul’s argument thus far does not leave any place for the will of man as playing a part in salvation.
17For the Scripture says to Pharaoh,”… This refers to the Pharoah of Exodus. For this very purpose I have raised you up,…the Hebrew uses the causative conjugation of a verb here, literally meaning “I made you stand”. Paul here is arguing that God was perfectly sovereign even through Pharoah’s disobedience; that it was God who preserved Pharoah. That I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” Pharoah then, as mighty as he might have been, and as persistent as he was in being disobedient to God was preserved by the will of God to show forth His power. This is used by Paul in support of God’s sovereignty in using the reprobate for His glory, and God was fully righteous in predestining Pharoah to destruction. It follows from this that it would be meaningless and futile to content against the will of God, that even the disobedience of the reprobate is used by God in the secret decree of His providence.
18So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills… Paul sums up his argument thus far, coming back to the fact that God has mercy on whomever it pleases Him, and hardens whomever He wills. This statement implies that all men deserve wrath and are not entitled to God’s mercy. The word “hardens” here does not mean mere permission, but also the operation of the wrath of God.